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iJupiter

February 8, 2015

Jupiter: giant planetary overlord of our solar system. From Earth, Jupiter’s gargantuan presence is hardly evident on a daily basis; to us it is a far-away dot in the night sky (albeit the third-brightest after the Moon and Venus).

But, Jupiter is special and significant. With a mass equal to 2.5 times that of all the other planets combined, it is by far the largest planet in the solar system. Light from Jupiter can be bright enough to cast shadows on Earth, which is impressive given that its average distance from us hovers between ~ 460 million and 510 million miles. And, while it is the great giant of our planets, Jupiter is made up primarily of the lightest of gases: hydrogen (primarily) and helium. While it may have a rocky core, it has no solid surface to speak of, rendering it most difficult to imagine as either a haven for extraterrestrial life, or a destination for futuristic human space travelers.

Montage of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites, taken by the Galileo spacecraft [satellites, top to bottom: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto]. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter's surface is a persistent storm that is larger than Earth (Credit: NASA/JPL/DLR).

Montage of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites, taken by the Galileo spacecraft [satellites, top to bottom: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto]. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter’s surface is a persistent storm that is larger than Earth (Credit: NASA/JPL/DLR).

Due to its large mass and consequently strong gravitational pull, Jupiter acts as a “cosmic vacuum cleaner,” protecting Earth from being pelted with many more asteroids and comets than have reached the surface throughout its history.  The impact rate on Jupiter has been estimated to be between two- and eight- thousand times greater than Earth, and without Jupiter it is hypothesized that life on Earth may not have made it this far. In fact, scientists think that habitability on any Earth-like planet — in exoplanetary systems in the Galaxy — may in part depend on a nearby Jupiter-like giant that attracts a large percentage of space debris.

As recently as the 1990s, Jupiter has shown it can do the job. In 1992, astronomers witnessed the break up of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, torn apart by Jupiter’s gravitational forces, leading to it being described as a “string of pearls”:

A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994, with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in wide field mode. When the comet was observed, its train of 21 icy fragments stretched across 1.1 million km (710 thousand miles) of space, or 3 times the distance between Earth and the Moon (Image Credit: NASA/ESA and H. Weaver and E. Smith (STScI)).

A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994. When the comet was observed, its train of 21 icy fragments stretched across 710 thousand miles of space, or 3 times the distance between Earth and the Moon (Image Credit: NASA/ESA and H. Weaver and E. Smith [STScI]).

In 1994, the comet’s 21 discernible fragments, with diameters up to 2 km (~ 1.2 miles), collided with Jupiter at speeds exceeding 130,000 miles per hour. If even one of those fragments had reached a populated region of Earth, the result would likely have been more than just a cosmic light show.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collision with Jupiter (Credit: NASA).

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collision with Jupiter (Credit: NASA).

In addition to their physical grandeur, Jupiter and its four most prominent moons — Io, Europa, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto (see the image montage, above) — figure prominently in the evolution of our understanding of the solar system. Now aptly referred to as the “Galilean Satellites”, these four moons were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610, marking one of the most significant contributions to science. Galileo used a homemade telescope to make these observations which helped him prove that, without doubt, the Sun, not the Earth (as thought at the time), was the center of the solar system.

A translation of the key passages of Galileo Galilei's journal detailing his discovery of four moons orbiting Jupiter in January, 1610. The moons, later named Io, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede, were the first discovered beyond Earth (Image Credit: NASA).

A translation of the key passages of Galileo Galilei’s journal detailing his discovery of four moons orbiting Jupiter in January, 1610. The moons, later named Io, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede, were the first discovered beyond Earth (Image Credit: NASA).

Galileo Galilei is often referred to as “the father of modern observational astronomy” for his work on the Jupiter system, the phases of Venus, and sunspots, and he laid the foundation for today’s modern space probes and telescopes. In the more than 400 years since, we’ve certainly come a long way technologically. Data and images from the Voyager and Galileo missions to Jupiter and the outer planets have revealed incredible details of these foreign worlds. The year 2012 marked the 35th Anniversary of Voyager, now in interstellar space, making it the farthest spacecraft ever launched from Earth.

Close-up view of Jupiter's Giant Red Spot, taken by the Voyager spacecraft (Image Credit: NASA).

Close-up view of Jupiter’s Giant Red Spot, taken by the Voyager spacecraft (Image Credit: NASA).

While our record of state-of-the-art space exploration is, rightfully, marked by missions backed by multinational consortia of space agencies and years of development, it should also be remembered developments in technology now give us hand-held devices that can help put astronomy at your fingertips.

I was recently involved in a public observing night, led by my colleague Professor Daniel Caton, at Appalachian State University’s Dark Sky Observatory in the mountains of Boone. It was a wonderfully clear night, during which we got a wonderful glimpse of the Geminid meteor shower. At one point, Jupiter and its four sparkling moons were put into view through the Observatory’s excellent 32-inch telescope. After the crowd dispersed I took a few minutes to fiddle with aligning my iPhone just so, and captured the image below:

Jupiter and the Galilean Moons, taken with my iPhone through the 32-inch telescope at Dark Sky Observatory (Image credit: R. Smith)

Jupiter and the Galilean Moons, taken with my iPhone through the 32-inch telescope at Dark Sky Observatory. Moons from left to right: Io, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa (Image credit: R. Smith)

I’ll stay tuned for a device one can whip out to capture 200x magnification of the celestial object of their choice — an “iTelescope”, if you will. For now, I like knowing that it’s not that hard to take a pretty decent image of a far-away system through the eyepiece of a moderately sized telescope, just with an iPhone. And now I have Jupiter in my pocket.

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